References for:
Leukoplakia of the Bladder

[Infect Urol 16(4):95-102, 2003. © 2003 Cliggott Publishing, Division of SCP Communications ]

  1. Young RH, Eble JN. Non-neoplastic disorders of the urinary bladder. In: Bostwick DG, Eble JN, eds. Urologic Surgical Pathology. St Louis: Mosby; 1997:166-212.
  2. Mostofi FK, Davis CJ Jr. Epithelial abnormalities of urinary bladder. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1984;162A:81-93.
  3. Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Andersson L, et al. Preneoplastic non-papillary lesions and conditions of the urinary bladder: an update based on the Ancona International Consultation. Virchows Arch. 2002;440:3-11.
  4. Morgan RJ, Cameron KM. Vesical leukoplakia. Br J Urol. 1980; 52:96-100.
  5. Polsky MS, Weber CH Jr, Williams JE III, et al. Chronically infected and postdiversionary bladders: cytologic and histopathologic study. Urology. 1976;7:531-535.
  6. Reece RW, Koontz WW Jr. Leukoplakia of the urinary tract: a review. J Urol. 1975;114:165-171.
  7. Widran J, Sanchez R, Gruhn J. Squamous metaplasia of the bladder: a study of 450 patients. J Urol. 1974;112:479-482.
  8. Cabot AT. A case of cystitis with the formation of a thick epidermal sheet in the bladder: pachydermia vesicae. Am J Med Sci. 1891;101:135-142.
  9. Holley PS, Mellinger GT. Leukoplakia of the bladder and carcinoma. J Urol. 1961;6:235-241.
  10. Benson RC Jr, Swanson SK, Farrow GM. Relationship of leukoplakia to urothelial malignancy. J Urol. 1984;131:507-511.
  11. O'Flynn JD, Mullaney J. Leukoplakia of the bladder. A report on 20 cases, including 2 cases progressing to squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1967;39:461-471.
  12. O'Flynn JD, Mullaney J. Vesical leukoplakia progressing to carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1974;46:31-37.
  13. Walts AE, Sacks SA. Squamous metaplasia and invasive epidermoid carcinoma of bladder. Urology. 1977;9:317-320.
  14. Thompson GJ, Stein JJ. Leukoplakia of the urinary bladder: a report of 34 clinical cases. J Urol. 1940;44:639-649.
  15. Ozbey I, Aksoy Y, Polat O, et al. Squamous metaplasia of the bladder: findings in 14 patients and review of the literature. Int Urol Nephrol. 1999;31:457-461.
  16. Schaeffer AJ. Leukoplakia of the bladder: case history. Urol Int. 1997;4:2-3.
  17. Redman JF, Downs RA. Management of extensive leukoplakia of bladder. Urology. 1975;6:759-761.
  18. Witherington R. Leukoplakia of the bladder: an 8-year follow-up. J Urol. 1974;112:600-602.
  19. DeKock ML, Anderson CK, Clark PB. Vesical leukoplakia progressing to squamous cell carcinoma in women. Br J Urol. 1981; 53:316-317.
  20. Mueller SC, Thueroff JW, Rumpelt HJ. Urothelial leukoplakia: new aspects of etiology and therapy. J Urol. 1987;137:979-983.